Thursday, November 21, 2019

Marine Wildlife Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Marine Wildlife - Assignment Example The impact marine preys like fur seals have on their target prey and more especially their resultant interaction with other fisheries has been a subject of continuous study and research interest. The wide array of species and species groups within the marine ecosystem has further expounded this area of research (Wilke & Kenyon, 1954). Various researches have calculated the overall prey requirements of predators including the seabirds, seals as well as whales and such studies avail regional food assessment necessary for maintenance of the respective species population (Perez & Mooney, 1984). In a world where many animals are faced with the possibility of extinction, such research are crucial and can go a long way in helping preserve the threatened population species. The studies have also facilitated and engaged in examination of food web interactions strengths. Additionally, such studies help in understanding the biogeochemical carbon cycling processes (Perez & Bigg, 1981; Townsend, 1899). According to Kajimura (1980, P. 46) fur seals are most commonly found in the areas lying within 74 to 130 km off the land and are frequently in large numbers along the continental shelf as well as slope in areas where pelagic schooling fishes and also squids are generally found in abundance. The study also reported that the fur seals and most regularly found in waters whose temperatures range from 8Â °C to 14Â °C. At sea, the fur seals feed on a range of fish species. The relative proportion of individual prey species included in the fur seals' diet often varies by months (Kajimura 1982; Perez and Bigg 1984). This is as a result of the apparent changes in their scavenging locations, and also the seasonal movements, prey abundance, as well as availability (Lander & Kajimura, 1982). Generally, the fur seals' vary their diets during winter and spring to correspond to the prevailing conditions. Previous researches estimate that the fur seals often consume preys whose respective lengths are 10 to 30 cm, although there are instances where much longer preys are consumed although such must be broken down before consumption (Townsend, 1899, p. 241). This study investigates the average length as well as biomass content of some of the species most fed on by the fur seals. Methods The first step involves measurement of otoliths and beaks of the seals. This is based on the fact that the otoliths are susceptible to degradation and size reduction as they move via the seal’s digestive tract as a result of prey size underestimation. As a result, only the otoliths that reveal little erosion evidence are used to obtain the estimates of fish sizes. Each otolith is rated on scale of 1-5 as per their erosion levels whereby 1 is considered identifiable although substantially eroded while 5 is considered primeval. As an inclusion criterion, only otoliths whose ratings lie above 3 will be measured. Measurement of the otolith leg length is done between its anterior and posterior margins. The measurement is done in mmm with the help of a dissecting microscope and making use of eye-piece graticules. In order to avoid obtaining of size estimates from the same fish, the measurements taken are only for the otoliths of the sides that possess the highest number of intact otoliths of each sample specie. Biasing the cephalopods estimate of sizes is also a key concern to this research. To avoid it, only the cephalopod beaks that are unbroken will be

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

A summative assignment based on the use a self analysis tool as a Essay

A summative assignment based on the use a self analysis tool as a Clinical Manager of an Acute Medical Ward - Essay Example Jung, its first publishing was done in 1921. The initial questionnaire that developed in into the MBTI Indicator was published 1962. The MBTI mainly focuses normal populations and emphasizes on naturally occurring differences that exist ( Capraro, 2002 p. 590). Origins of the theory Jung's theory publishing was done in 1921 and it was not tested or verified under the controlled studies scientifically but it included clinical observation and introspection as well as anecdote method which are inconclusive in the modern psychology which argue that for the theory to be published it must be studied scientifically. Validity of the theory The statistical validity of this theory and use of psychometric instrument (MBTI) has found criticism in many aspects. It has been argued that there lack critical scrutiny since most of the published material on this MBTI tool was for conferences. About a third or half have been estimated that material used were for the conferences or journals which were e dited by its advocates (Capraro, 2002, p.595). Researchers expected bimodal distribution on the peaks almost at the end of the scales but these scores on subscales individually were centrally peaked distributed which was the same as the normal distribution. At the center to subscale a cutoff existed in away that the one score is classified one type while the other as an opposite type. This does not support the concept of type. Reliability of the theory Interpreted reliability from the studies has indicated the test is low. Researchers found that thirty nine percent and seventy six per cent of the test is different types. CONCEPTS As the Manual states this indicator is designed for implementing a hypothesis or a theory. Therefore the hypothesis should be comprehended so as to understand the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. Theory of psychological type is fundamental to the Myers Briggs Type Indicator as originally it was developed by Jung. He proposed an existence of two cognitive functi oning dichotomous pairs: these are judging (rational) which has functions of feeling as well as thinking and perceiving (irrational) which has functions of intuition and sensing. These functions are in introverted form or extraverted form in expression. From this concept of Jung others such as Briggs and Myers came up with their own theory for psychological type and this became the base of MBTI (Capraro, 2002, p. 598). Jung's typological model regards left handedness or right handedness as similar to psychological type. This means that individuals may be born with or may develop a certain way of thinking and acting depending on preference. MBTI is on these psychological differences and put them into four pairs that are opposite to each other with 16 possible combinations psychological types. None of these psychological types are better or even worse than the other. But Briggs and Myers developed a theory that individuals prefer one combination overall with the type differences. In t his case, writing using the left hand may be hard for a right handed people

Sunday, November 17, 2019

International Human Recourse Management Essay Example for Free

International Human Recourse Management Essay Undertake research to examine current trends and emerging issues within the field of International Human Resource Management (IHRM). What are some contrasting and recent frameworks, models and perspectives applied within the field of IHRM? The meaning of International Human Resource Management (IHRM) becomes more and more important in the last few years. The first time the term IHRM was used was in 1990, around the same time period ‘globalisation’ began. Initially the main function of IHRM was the organisation and management of expatriates (Festing, et al. , 2013, p. 161). In 2012 the foreign affiliates of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) of the United Nations had reached 69 million workers (Dowling, et al., 2013, p. viii). Due to this fact it becomes clear the tremendous challenge IHRM faces in our time. Furthermore the world is getting more uniform and standardised because of the globalisation. With the impact of technical, commercial and cultural development, companies must rise to new challenges and a different way of thinking (Durham Kellner, 2006, p. 659). If we put all the different aspects together we can define IHRM as examining the HRM issues, problems, strategies, policies and practices which firms pursue in relation to the internationalisation of their business (Brewster, et al., 2011, p. 10). On the basis of current research, this essay will investigate trends and emerging issues in the field of IHRM. In the first wide field of global assignments and careers there have been changes in recent years due to the development of technology and worldwide integration. As organisations are increasingly affected by the forces of globalisation and the competition between the different companies, the prerequisites for employees are increasing as well. Due to these facts, the work life balance (WLB) has been subject to increasing investigation and has led to a significant emerging issue for all people especially international business travellers (Festing, et al., 2013). As a consequence,  WLB is receiving attention in the IHRM field. WLB consists of two different concepts: achievement and enjoyment. You cannot get the full value from life if you are only concentrated on one concept (WorkLifeBalance, 2014). One’s daily focus on achievement and enjoyment is based in all four life quadrants: work, family, friends and self WLB. WLB is already a significant topic for HRM, however it is ev en more important for frequent travellers. Due to this fact, in the field of IHRM, work life balance has been  investigated by Iris Kollinger-Santer and Iris C. Fischlmayr (2013). They focused on the difference between female and male international travellers and their WLB, finding that the different stressors related to travelling have a variable intensity according to gender. For instance, the lack of time for social contact or leisure activities is a stronger stress factor for women than for men. The family situation in particular is an important influence on each gender, with women missing their family more than men. Coping strategies also vary according to gender (Kollinger-Santer Fischlmayr). Beauregard and Henry (2009) bring different concepts to the issue of WLB. These authors try to make a link between work life balance practices and organisational performance. Therefore they discuss the differing importance of factors according to national context, job level, and managerial support and come to the conclusion that WLB practices are often combined with high organisational performance (Beauregards Henry). Another emerging challenge beside WLB is the different types of global assignments. In recent years, working abroad as an expatriate to get international experience and to develop global skills was considered an important skill. Organisations openly promoted this process. They wanted to give their employees work experience and transcend national boundaries. However, employees are often unwilling to work abroad or those who are  willing to work abroad are leaving their international assignments early or quitting their organisations once they repatriate because of the positive effects, such as promotions and salary advancement. Another aspect that favours this situation is to compensate for the out-of-sight, out-ofmind problem that occurs when employees are physically away from their home country’s organisation (Shaffer, et al.). Due to this fact a new emerging issue is taking place within IHRM. Organisations are looking for global work alternatives for their employees to gain global work experience without losing the employee afterwards. Besides the well-known kinds of work experience, such as corporate expatriation or self-initiated expatriation, some new ways to achieve global work experience are now offered to employees. Shaffer et al. (2012) sums up the existing ways to achieve international work experience and subdivided them along the three dimensions; physical mobility, cognitive flexibility, and nonwork disruptions. Based on this knowledge, the authors interpret the major findings from their review and develop a taxonomy of these experiences as a theoretical framework for analysing past studies. They point out that all of the global work  experiences were associated with different personal and nonwork demands especially, stress and family issues. However, Shaffer et al. claim that the specific stress factor varied by the different types of global work experience. Finally, they conclude that the real challenge is not the different types of global work, but is the combination of physically moving to a foreign country with the family and learning to adapt to a new culture that creates unique family demands associated with expatriate assignments (Shaffer, et al.). In addition to the new methods to get global work experience, Vaiman and Haslberger (2013) focus on the importance of  self-initiated expatriations and take a closer look at foreign executives in local organisations (FELOs). A FELO is a rare international crosscultural management phenomenon. To find the differences between an expatriate assignment and a FELO, one must take a deeper look at the subsidiaries of multinational organisations (FELO Research, 2014). Vaiman and Haslberger derive four different types of FELOs and various types of localised FELOs as well as typologies and organisation forms. Finally they examine global careers outside of traditional, company-backed expatriate assignments, and highlight the fact that there is a rising number of foreign executives appointed in recent years (Vaiman Haslberger). Global talent management (GTM) is a rapidly growing field within IHRM. GTM includes the connection between the importance of talent management and success in global business. In general the aim of talent management is the identification of well qualified employees in a global context and placing those people in key positions where they have the potential to impact the competitive advantage of the organisation (Scullion Collings, 2011, pp. 3-4). GTM is still an emerging field with debates regarding many aspects of its relevance IHRM (Festing, et al., 2013). For instance, Schuler et al. (2012) focus on various challenges in the area of GTM like dealing with talent shortages, talent surpluses, locating and relocating talent, and compensation levels of talent. They present strategic opportunities and their implications for organisations in regards to these challenges, concluding that organisational need must be linked to the direction of organisational strategy and talent strategy in particular (Schuler, et al.). Clearly there is a wide area of unspecified topics in the field of GTM. In countries such as Germany, China or India, research on this subject is particularly limited, thus there has been much debate over the continuing significance of talent management in the recent years. There are two different views of the importance and the impact of talent  management (Festing, et al., 2013) According to Walk et al. (2013), talent is the most consistent and frequent factor in business success within a global context. For this reason, organisations compete across borders to get the most talented employees. The authors discovered that from the standpoint of an organisation, cross-cultural students are the most valuable, thus they tend to recruit their future employees from this group. Walk et al. also assess work expectations across diverse cultural backgrounds and concluded that differences in expectation are less between Chinese, Indian, and German students than one might suspect (Cf. Walk, et al.).  Ewerlin’s (2013) research on GTM focusses on the influence of talent management program’s attractiveness on an employer. Due to the fact that talented individuals are rare, organisations need to take care that they can position themselves as attractive employers in order to secure the best employees. Talented employees are able to pick and choose between several attractive job offers, therefore they are looking for an additional factors such as good talent management programs. Ewerlin could not confirm that there is a direct relationship between employer attractiveness and their GTM program, however she indicates that these programs should be designed for culturally differences and that personality also plays an important role in shaping the needs of individual employees (Ewerlin). If you compare the current trends and emerging issues of IHRM to the development of other departments within an organisation, especially due to the influence of other areas, there is constant change in IHRM. Additionally to the constant changes IHRM have made, there are a lot of increasing factors to the global market. Several aspects are crucial in the two huge fields of global assignments and careers and global work experience. In the first field there are different facts like work life balance and global work experience. The second area includes the current topics such as GTM programs and the connection to the attractiveness to an employer. Finally there are a lot of new areas of investigation that need to be explored and due to the fact of technical progress and the increasing globalisation it is important  to deal with new challenges in order to stay competitive in the international market. Reference List: Beauregards, T. A. Henry, L. C., 2009. Making the link betwen work-life balance practices and organizational performance. Human resource management review, September, pp. 9-22. Brewster, C., Sparrow, P., Vernon, G. Houldsworth, E., 2011. International Human Resource Management, London: CIPD House. BusinessDictionary.com, 2014. BusinessDictionary.com. [Online] Available at: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/expatriate.html Dowling, P. J., Festing, M. Engle, A. D., 2013. International human resource management, 6th Edition. Hampshire: Cengage Learning. Durham, M. G. Kellner, D. M., 2006. media and cultural studies. Carlton: Blackwell. Ewerlin, D., 2013. The influence of global talent management on employer attractiveness: An experimental study. German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, pp. 279304. FELO Research, 2014. feloreseach. [Online] Available at: http://feloresearch.info/ Festing, M. et al., 2013. Current issues in International HRM: Alternative forms of assignments, careers and talent management in a global context. German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, pp. 161-166. Kollinger-Santer, I. Fischlmayr, I. C., 2013. Work life balance up in the air Does gender make a difference between female and male internation business travelers. German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, 09, pp. 195-223. Schuler, R. S., Jackson, S. E. Tarique, I., 2012. Global talent management and global talent challenges: strategic opportunities for IHRM, New York: Journal of World Business. Scullion, H. Collings, D. G., 2011. Global Talent Management. New York: Routledge. Shaffer, M. A., Kraimer, M. L., Chen, Y.-P. Bolino, M. C., 2012. Choices, Challenges, and Career Consequences of Global Work Experiences: A Review and Future Agenda. Journal of Management, pp. 1281-1327. Vaiman, V. Haslberger, A., 2013. Talent Manamgent of Self-Initaited Expatriates, Hampshire: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN. Walk, M., Schinnenburg, H. Handy, F., 2013. What do talens want? Work expectations in India, China, and Germany. German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, pp. 251-278. WorkLifeBalance, 2014. WorkLifeBalance. [Online] Available at: http://www.worklifebalance.com/

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Impermanence and Death in Sino-Japanese Philosophical Context :: Philosophy Buddhism Papers

Impermanence and Death in Sino-Japanese Philosophical Context This paper discusses the notions of impermanence and death as treated in the Chinese and Japanese philosophical traditions, particularly in connection with the Buddhist concept of emptiness and void and the original Daoist answers to the problem. Methodological problems are mentioned and two ways of approaching the theme are proposed: the logically discursive and the meditative mystical one, with the two symbols of each, Uroboros and the open circle. The switch of consciousness is suggested as an essential condition for liberation of the Ego and its illusions. Rational logic as well as the sophisticated meditative ways of selflessness and detachment are suggested when treating the Chinese and Japanese philosophical notions, and examples of the discussed topics from the texts given. The instructive seventh chapter of the classical Daoist work, Lie Zi, is analyzed in detail and put into contrast with the answers given to that problem in the Greco-Judeo-Christian tradition. When reflecting on immortality, longevity, death and suicide, or taking into consideration some of the central concepts of the Sino-Japanese philosophical tradition, such as impermanence (Chinese: wuchang, Japanese: mujo), we see that the philosophical methods developed in the Graeco-Judaeo-Christian tradition might not be very suitable. On the other hand, it is instructive to put them into contrast with the similar themes developed in the Graeco-Judeo-Christian tradition, since these problems present a challenge for a redefinition of "philosophy" which has traditionally regarded itself as a European (and in an even less acceptable variation as a "Western") phenomenon and therefore today the very borders of philosophical discourse known in European history as "philosophia" are reexamined (affected). By rethinking the history of philosophy as a single narrative, one might come closer to the movements related to the levels of consciousness that were activated in philosophical undertakings in various Asian philosophical schools. In this regard Japanese and Chinese philosophical traditions might be instructive, since from the beginning through the various stages of their development they have attempted to put into words the inexpressible. The awareness of the insufficiency of words brought many original solutions. In the Song dynasty, for instance China produced a variety of diagrams (tu), by which the philosophers and practitioners represented their theories, which often arose on the basis of meditation techniques and could not be fully transmitted by means of language alone. The illustration of the nine step process (known in Japan as kuso) is one such representation and it is taken here as a starting point for approaching the concept of impermanence and death in the Japanese phil osophical

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

How important was Martin Luther King?

Martin Luther King was the main figure in the Civil Rights Movement; he was the civil right activist leader and had an influence of the American society. King believed in non-violent protest and used it to overcome justice, king’s idea of non-violent protest came from Ghandi’s idea, and he thought Ghandi was the great man of all times. King also believed that all man and woman are equal; he was the most important voice of the civil rights movement.King was brave to stand up and give up segregation laws and tried to get rid of segregation laws, Martin Luther King was proud of his race, in 1958 after King was stabbed in Harlem he had said ‘my cause, my race, is worth dying for’, this source is useful for proving that he will do anything for his race and do whatever it takes to bring freedom across black Americans. King wasn’t afraid and he still carried on fighting for more freedom after he was stabbed and survived.Martin Luther King was important of b ringing improvements in the African- American Civil Rights because he brought equality to America and progress to the civil rights movement. In 1957 he helped setting up the (SCLC) and believed that non-violent protest should be used in the struggle for equality. King helped places like Birmingham to reduce the amount of racism. There had been lots of racism in Birmingham, King described Birmingham as America’s ‘worst big city’ for racism.He wanted to improve the amount of racism in Birmingham, the SCLC arranged a march, and king was leading rather than led. The confrontation used tactics like sit- in and marches so that they can gain more publicity across the USA. King became more popular and people liked him, but those who disagreed with the equal right movement hated king. King gained goverment support, Kings effort led to the march on washington in 1963, where King delivered his speech ‘I have a dream’. In 1965, King led a campaign to resgister b lack people to vote.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Does Person-Centred Therapy Differ from Other Helping Relationships?

â€Å"How do person-centred counsellors use the therapeutic relationship to facilitate change- and in what way (s) does person-centred therapy differ from other helping relationships? † word count: 2,495 Person centred counselling originated and was evolved on the ideas of American psychologist Carl Rogers. The influences on Carl Rogers and he’s conceptualisation of Person centred counselling are numerous, from his early family life living on a farm, his interest and involvement in theology and his formative professional career. One incident which appears to have had a particular impact on Carl Rogers was when working in his first job as a psychologist, at Rochester New York, for an organisation for the prevention of cruelty to children, whilst working with a parent (Kirshenbaum H, et al. 1989). At this stage in his career Carl Rogers, being trained in or influenced by the tradition of psychoanalysis, was essentially working in a diagnostic and interpretative way, helping a child or parent gain insight or an intellectual understanding of their own behaviour and what was unconsciously driving or motivating it (Thorne B 2002) . He formalised that the problem with the child stemmed from the Mother’s rejection of the child in his early years. But despite a number of sessions was unable to help the Mother gain this insight. He concluded that it wasn’t working and finally gave up. The Mother was leaving when she asked Carl Rogers if he takes adults for counselling. He began working with the mother, where she subsequently expressed her despair of unhappiness and feelings of failure, which was more emotive and authentic in expression, than the previously intellectual and matter of fact account given previously of her history and current life. Carl Rogers said that ‘real therapy’ began at this moment and concluded in a successful outcome (Kirshenbaum H, et al. 1990). This is Carl Roger’s view and what he learned from this experience: â€Å"This incident was one of a number which helped me to experience the fact- only fully realized later- that is the client who knows what hurts, what directions to go, what problems are crucial, what experiences have been deeply buried. It began to occur to me that unless I had a need to demonstrate my own cleverness and learning, I would do better to rely upon the client for the direction of movement in the process†. Kirshenbaum H, et al. 1990 p13). This statement is arguably the beginnings of what, in many ways would later define and becomes a way of working within person centred therapy – that is a therapy that allows the client to be whom the client is, without any active direction from the therapist. Carl Rogers through clinical experience, research an d development later defined his model of therapy. He based it upon the principles of a person as having at it’s a core an instinctive tendency towards growth, to fulfilling their potential as a person in what he termed ‘self actualisation’ (Mearns D, et al. 988). Carl Rogers believed that every living organism has a desire to increase, widen and broaden. Essentially, a fundamental urge to improve upon itself and that although, in the case of human beings, this urge may be buried or hidden by multiple psychological structures and conflicts, he strongly believed in the existence of this actualisation tendency in all of us and that given the correct conditions, it could be freed and realised in all of us (Rogers C 1961- becoming a person). Personally, I have recognised a need to develop and grow within myself for sometime and this has again been highlighted to me during this term. The more I become aware of my insecurities and pre judgements, the greater the desire to become bigger than them only becomes more apparent to me. Through my clinical experience working with adults with mental health problems, I have certainly recognised a desire in many, to become bigger or more than their issues, although, I am not certain if that was a desire to escape from their often intolerable suffering, or a fundamental need to self actualise†¦ at the very least, I would suggest self actualisation is an entirely relative supposition and will differ from person to person, dependent upon their own experiences, circumstances and perhaps even expectations. These correct conditions which are required within person centred therapy in order that the client can achieve self actualisation and personality change were outlined by Carl Rogers and he believed that if this 6 conditions were met, it would facilitate change within the client: Two persons are in psychological contact- both client and counsellor are present physically and psychologically. The client is in a state of incongruence, (which will be discussed in more detail) the communication of the counsellor’s empathetic understanding and unconditional positive regard is met at a minimal level. The last condition mentioned involves 3 other conditions, which are essential attitudes and qualities necessary for the counsellor to posses for successful therapy; empathic understanding, unconditional positive regard and congruence. (Rogers C, 1957). Before looking at the latter 3 in more detail, it is important to understand Carl Rogers’s view of the person and perhaps what is ultimately bringing the client to therapy. Carl Rogers believed that there is incongruence between the self that is the actualisation part, that has a desire to grow, is open to experiencing in the moment and ultimately psychological well being and the actual experience of the self. He believed this effect was caused by ‘conditions of worth’, by external expectations, such as by parents and teachers, i. e. f you behave in a certain way that pleases me, that perhaps doesn’t evoke anxieties in me, you are a good boy- there are certain ‘conditions’ attached to being in this relationship- the child tries to internalise these conditions in order to maintain the relationship (Mearns D 1994- developing PC). Consequently, people deny or distort the experiences to their selves, which differ to how we are supposed or are condi tioned to be. Therefore, Carl Rogers believed that we begin to believe in what we are not and refute who we really are (Mearns D 1994). The person has a fixed and inflexible view, or self concept (Rogers C 1980). It’s almost as if the person is driven in implementing or adopting certain behaviours in order to be accepted or loved and denying, or at the cost of their true self and feelings. This is the state of incongruence Rogers was referring as apart of the necessary conditions. Carl Rogers recognised, through his development of this approach, that distinctive and essential qualities are necessary within the therapist, for successful therapy and to facilitate character change. The emphasis being on the therapist’s attitude towards the client, as opposed to any technical skills or interventions, in comparison to many other modalities. As already mentioned, the key attitudes or qualities being empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard (Rogers C 1980). Empathy can be considered as having an ability to perceive and understand in the other person their feelings, experiences and their meaning to that person. To understand the internal world of that person, to be fully aware of the feelings they are experiencing, their anger or sadness for example, as if they are your own, but being aware that they are the clients, in order that your own feelings do not become the focus or blur the clients own experiencing (Rogers C, 1957). To absolutely see from the clients view, the feelings they may have from their position or personal experiencing, but recognising them as separate from your own. I recall a moment during this term, when in skills practise, being in the ‘client role’, when I received empathy. I was speaking about a personal situation, which I was aware on some level had meaning to me, but wasn’t fully aware of, or experiencing the feelings relating to this meaning. My perception later was that the person listened so intently, was so with me in trying to make sense of my situation, that they really did know and fully understand how it must feel for me. It was almost if I had no choice in allowing my feelings to be present, to come to my awareness and I was left with a sense of loss, feelings of loss, that I wasn’t aware of and made tremendous sense to my circumstances and why I had some anxiety and confusion in relation to this particular issue. This highlights for me how powerful empathy can be, as well as actively listening to and showing an interest sufficient in trying to understand the client, but also how it has the potential to provoke in the client in becoming aware of hidden feelings or realisations. Unconditional positive regard (UPR) is another important aspect and described as having total acceptance of the client, without conditions, whoever and whatever the client is, or how they may behave. An acceptance of not what they may or could be, but as they are now, regardless of what desired qualities the counsellor may wish for. It means total respect and valuing the person, without judgement. It also involves a sense of genuine care and wanting the best for them, including warmth for the person (Rogers C 1961). David Mearns talks about the often confusion in trainees, when understanding UPR, with a statement such as, ‘how is it possible to like all my clients’? He makes a distinction that liking is generally selective, as we perceive a similarity in values and complementary needs and UPR and liking are two very different concepts (Mearns D 1994). Unconditional positive regard is completely about valuing the person, without conditions, with all the facets of the person, their struggles, protective layers, confusion and perhaps inconsistencies. This unconditional stance is a contradiction to the conditions of worth spoken of earlier and is a vital component of person centred counselling (Kulewicz S, 1989). If a client is holding a believe that they will only be accepted, depending on the condition of others, essentially they do not see themselves as being wholly acceptable. The stance and communication of UPR can break this believe and the client is able to be in a relationship, with the counsellor accepting them without conditions (Rogers C 1961). If the counsellor is consistently valuing the client, the client perhaps has no reason for the protective layers and can be more open to their own inner experiences. Also, I wonder if the counsellor is almost giving permission and communicating a message to the client that it is ok to accept who they truly are. Another essential attitude for the counsellor, recognised by Rogers is congruence. This is the counsellor being who they are, no facade or ‘professional’ barrier. The counsellor is open and genuine in the relationship, allowing all feelings and thoughts to be in his awareness and available to him (Rogers C 1961). It’s being present with yourself and owning your feelings, not necessarily expressing what you are experiencing at the time to the client, but also not denying it. How congruence is conveyed is ultimately depended upon the counsellor themselves and when appropriate. It is about allowing a trust to be formed with the client, without pretences, where the counsellor is being human and willing to be seen (Thorne B 2002). If the counsellor is willing to acknowledge his feelings, strengths, perhaps their mistakes or weakness, it can not only allow for a more open and flowing relationship, but again I see this as perhaps giving permission to the client to embrace themselves, their strengths and weaknesses. How this differs from a helping relationship, are mainly the quality of contact and the nature of the differences in relationship. What if our client seeks help from a non person centred counsellor, perhaps a professionally respected person, a Doctor, teacher, perhaps even a work place manager, or colleague. They will listen, perhaps are sympathetic, are likely to offer advice and some direction the person may take in order to resolve their problem. But there is no ongoing process, no consistency of a relationship, with all the qualities discussed, empathy, UPR and congruence. The person centred therapist offers a safe and non judgemental relationship, with the client being valued for who they are, where they can grow in understanding of themselves, gain insight and become psychological stronger and independent. A helping relationship, although perhaps useful and supportive, will not facilitate change and allow a person to grow. In conclusion, person centred therapy is about an effective relationship, or aspires to be one, in which a person through experiencing a positive connection with another person, namely the therapist, receives deep empathy, understanding and genuine care. This enables a person to question or challenge their self concepts, to begin to experience buried or hidden feelings and gain a deeper understanding of themselves, with more acceptances and the autonomy to live without fear of their own feelings and perhaps their truer selves. It is without any difficulty from me to admire the sheer humanity of what Carl Rogers achieved with person centred therapy, the whole ethos of accepting and allowing the person to grow through such a positive and caring relationship. It appears to me that this is an incredibly challenging model of therapy, for both client and therapist. For the client the person centred therapist may appear safe and accepting, even inoffensive or unchallenging to his protective mechanisms or fixed self concepts, but that is perhaps the greatest challenge to the client, who may want answers or ways of dealing with their issues, perhaps unbearable anxiety and will perhaps look to the therapist for solutions and will find the person centred therapist completely and deeply sharing their distress, but essentially leaving it with client to be able to tolerate and accept for themselves, with of course as discussed, with the intention for the client to grow, understand the meaning behind their distress and ultimately in becoming psychologically independent. I would imagine, at least initially or in the short term, it must be difficult for the client, who is still searching and looking outside of himself, for the apparent safety and false ‘conditions’ that will make it all well again. For the therapist, the challenge is potentially numerous, but what I recognise is the trust he must have in the process of person centred therapy, in maintaining all the attitudes as discussed and consistently so. I can see that taking great strength and discipline, when he could perhaps temptingly turn to direction and advice giving. I am also left wondering if the strengths within PC therapy are also its weaknesses. The quality of therapy can only be as effective as the quality of therapist, or the limitations of the therapist. This could be said of other therapies, but for example, the CBT therapist has a direction and structure to fall back on. The challenge to the PC therapist is to be constantly growing and developing, as there is such a dependence upon who they are in the relationship. References: Kirshenbaum, H. and Henderson, V. L. (1989) The Carl Rogers reader Bury St. Edmunds: St Edmundsbury Press Limited. Kulewicz, S. F. (1989) The twelve core functions of a Counselor (5th Edn). Marlborough, CT: Counselor Publications. Mearns, D. and Thorne, B. (1988) Person-centred counselling in Action (3rd Edn). London: Sage Publications Ltd. Mearns, D. 1994) Developing Person Centred counselling (2nd Edn). London: Sage Publications Ltd. Rogers, C. R. (1957) The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol. 60, No. 6, 827-832 . Rogers, C. R. (1961) On Becoming a Person London: Constable & Robinson Ltd. Rogers, C. R. (1980) A way of Being Boston: Houghton and Mifflin Company. Rogers, C. R. (1980) Client Centred psychotherapy In: Kaplan, H. I. et al, ceds, Comprehensive text book of Psychiatry (3rd Edn). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co. Thorne, B. Dryden, W. (2002) Person Centred Counselling in W. Dryden Handbook of Individual Therapy (4th Edn). London: Sage. pp. 131-157.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Difference Between Hard and Soft Currency †Economics Essay

Difference Between Hard and Soft Currency – Economics Essay Free Online Research Papers Difference Between Hard and Soft Currency Economics Essay Since 650 BC man has used money to buy, barter and trade for goods and services. The Greeks were the first to use coins as monetary value which strengthened the economy and improved the quality for life for many. (us.rediff.com) Today, with many countries in the world having its own currency, there are many things to know in terms of how the different currencies are exchanged, traded and spent. One of the most important aspects of currency is the differences between hard and soft currency. In this paper, I will analyze the differences of the two and debate the relationship between them. Let us first start out with the text book definition of hard currency. Wikipedia.com defines hard currency as currency in which investors have confidence, such as that of a politically stable country with low inflation and consistent monetary and fiscal policies, and one that if anything is tending to appreciate against other currencies on a trades of hard currencies at this time include the United States dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen, the British pound and the Swiss franc. Before its replacement by the euro, the Deutschmark was considered perhaps the best hard currency. (wikipedia.com) If a countries currency is to be considered hard, then there are a few things that need to be in place. The first thing is the country needs to have a stable government in place. America, although every four years has the potential to change its political leaders and views, has little chance of revolution or an invasion that would completely uproot the stability of our society. The next is the currency must be able to be bartered and traded all around the world. An example of this is the dollar. For those of you that have traveled oversees, there are few countries in the world that if you were there on vacation, you could not buy a Mai Tai with a few American dollars. In fact, the American dollar is the sole currency used to make all oil deals in the world, even those deals that happen within the confides of the middle east. Lack of inflation is also a stipulation for a countries currency to be considered hard. An increase in the amount of currency in circulation, resulting in a relatively sharp and sudden fall in its value and rise in prices: it may be caused by an increase in the volume of paper money issued or of gold mined, or a relative increase in expenditures as when the supply of goods fails to meet the demand. (inflationdata.com) All currency goes through different levels of inflation, what is important that hard currency will depreciate less then the currency in other countries. Through much experience, the American government has done a good job of controlling inflation using both monetary and fiscal policy. Due to America’s continued stability in terms of its government, military and societal demands; the American dollar continues to be one of the strongest currencies in the world. America’s sustained involvement on the world stage in terms of political and monetary issues hopefully will and has secured a strong future for the American dollar. There have been many instances where other countries have discarded their failing currency and have taken a hard currency as its national currency. In terms of managing risks, utilizing or adopting hard currency is least likely to be a factor in the loss of funds. If using a weaker note, the odds of the note lessening in value or becoming completely non-valuable increase dramatically. Both Ecuador and Panama have taken the dollar as their national currency. Other strong currencies of the world are the Swiss Franc, the British Pound and the Japanese Yen. American currency is so stable that it is used world wide for business deals and ventures. It is somewhat ironic to think that many countries actually buy million of dollars a year in US savings bonds to secure their countries financial future. As stated above, OPEC uses the dollar on all deals concerning oil, no matter what parties are involved. If love is the universal language, then the dollar is the universal currency. When dealing with other countries, taking out any extraneous concerns, like the currency becoming worthless, is fir first key to success. Using a hard currency like the dollar evens out the playing field and ensures that all parties involved will benefit from the transaction. Soft currency on the other hand is defined as a countrys currency which is not acceptable in exchange for currency of other countries, due to unrealistic exchange rates.(budget.ro) Soft currency is normally a product of new countries and countries that do not have the industry or the resources to have a strong and stable platform to grow a society on. This currency not only fluctuates greatly in value, but is also under the constant risk of loosing some or all of its value. Unlike hard currency, soft currency is also not easily exchanged into other currency. Receiving soft currency for goods, other currency or services is risky because the monetary value you receive from x amount of soft currency today, has a strong chance of becoming less valuable, even by the hour. As stated above, there are many factors such as political, social, economical and military stability that play a part in making a currency hard. A country which produces hard currency has many advantages over those countries that do not. Possessing hard currency makes it much easier to do business world wide. It can be equated to have a good credit score and shopping for a car. You will be much more likely to not just get the car, but get it for cheaper with a good credit score. Countries like Japan, Brittan and America all have taken full advantage of printing hard currency. Over the history of currency, countries currency has fluctuated between hard and soft. The challenges of the world’s currency super powers are to maintain their economic hold and maintain their hard currency reputation. References Http://www.Wikipedia.com Http://www.Sticky-Marketing.com buget.ro/finante-banci-investitii-legi/o-DictionaryBuget_m-ViewArticle_id-5050/Define_soft_currency.html budget.ro.com inflationdata.com Research Papers on Difference Between Hard and Soft Currency - Economics EssayThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceDefinition of Export QuotasPETSTEL analysis of IndiaAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 219 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraQuebec and CanadaBringing Democracy to AfricaInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married Males